Also known as blurred vision, vision impairment and visual disturbances, there are several types of common eyesight problems which restrict the ability to see clearly in the normal field of vision. These problems may arise due to a variety of reasons that include old age, injury and disease. Even a condition such as diabetes has the potential to reduce the capacity of the eyes to perceive correctly and decipher accurately. Due to importance of good and accurate vision in our daily lives any such changes need to be taken seriously and addressed through proper medical attention.
Any impairment in vision can severely affect the individual’s life as the sense of vision accounts for about 90 % of all the inputs that help a person to orientate in any environment. Blind spots, halos, floaters and loss of visual acuity are indicators of impending eyesight problems which may lead to complete loss of vision unless treated at the earliest.
Tell Tale Indications
Like most of the other systems of the human body, the eyesight problems will also offer adequate symptoms and indications allowing sufficient time for cure. It is for the individual to take notice of these indications and act accordingly. Some of the most prominent symptoms which should not be ignored are listed in this article.
- A partial or complete blindness in either or both of the eyes.
- Experiencing double vision under normal circumstances.
- Reduced sharpness and blurred vision at night.
- Appearance of halos and distorted zones in the field of vision.
- Feeling of a shade being pulled over the eyes.
- Constant itching and irritation in the eyes which may be accompanied by discharge.
- Inability to easily differentiate colors.
- Loss of ability to see sharp features.
- Difficulty in reading small print.
- Pain in the eyes.
Common Forms of Eyesight Problems
The various types of ailments that affect vision are classified under refractive errors, myopia, hypermetropia and Presbyopia. These eyesight problems manifest in different limitations being imposed on the individual’s ability to see and interpret clearly.
This is a type of refractive error where the eye is unable to focus the incoming light evenly onto the retina due to the corneas being oval instead of the normal shape of spherical. This deformity of the shape causes the image to be unevenly focussed resulting in blurred vision at near or distant points.
Treatment- Astigmatism is corrected by placing glasses that have the ability to refract the incoming parallel rays so as to focus them evenly on the cornea and correct the blurred vision.
High and Low Refractive Errors:
The high refractive error refers to a condition of inaccurate and blurry vision which the eye is not capable of correcting through internal adjustments. This condition in children are marked by a display of lower levels of intelligence which is corrected the moment their eyesight problems are addressed. The patients in this error become shortsighted. In case of the low refractive errors the patients tend to be farsighted in which there is a distinct disconnect between the ocular functions during accommodation and convergence of the eyes. In both the cases there is strain on the eye muscles as they try to correct for the anomaly by adjusting their positions. The more severe cases report pressure, sensation of burning and irritation with headaches taking place in the worst scenarios.
Treatment – Involves exercises for the eyes and corrective glasses that can provide the required refraction to get the image focused correctly on to the retina to avoid the degradation of the quality of vision.
This is one of the most common types of eyesight problems which are also known as shortsightedness or nearsightedness since the individual can see close by things clearly but the distant objects appear blurry. This happens when the eyes focus the images in front of the retina instead of focusing on it. The primary cause for this condition is the elongating of the eyeball which prevents the rays of the incoming light from being focused onto the retina. Abnormality of the lens or the cornea can also lead to myopia. Myopic children can be found sitting in the front of the classroom or watching TV from close quarters. Even while reading anything these individuals will tend to get the books closer to have a better vision.
Treatment – The most common and basic treatment for this condition involves wearing glasses, using contact lenses or even surgery of the eye. Eyeglasses are considered to be the best and most convenient means to treat this condition without endangering the eyes. Modern surgery involves using Excimer Laser to flatten the curvature of the cornea and getting it as close as possible to the desired shape. This method has been found to be quite effective in most cases for eliminating such eyesight problems.
Also known as farsightedness and hyperopia, these eyesight problems imply that the eyes cannot see things at close range clearly though distant objects will appear sharp and accurate. In a manner opposite to that of myopia, this condition results from the image being focused behind the retina. Usually the condition is not noticed during childhood as the eyes can themselves accommodate and correct for the anomaly in vision. However in more severe cases objects at all distances will begin to appear blurred.
Treatment – Similar to the case of myopia, hypermetropia also requires corrective glasses, contact lenses and surgical intervention to be corrected. The use of Laser in this treatment is also gaining rapid popularity though its usage for myopia treatment is still more prevalent.
Physiological ageing process renders the ocular lens distorted which is the primary cause behind Presbyopia. With age, the lenses loose their elasticity and become large which reduces their ability to accommodate properly. This process is irreversible in nature as it is a phenomena associated with the parts’ ageing. The general symptom of this condition is the individual’s difficulty in shifting gaze since the lens will not change focus easily to view an object at a considerably different range instantaneously.
Treatment – One of the most common treatments in this case is correct one of the eyes for farsightedness while correcting the other for nearsightedness. However this method is known to have several drawbacks as it restricts the use of binocular vision under normal circumstances. The other methods involve use of contact lenses whose efficacy is slightly better.
Simple Methods for Prevention of Eyesight Problems
Some easy and simple methods are available that can be extremely effective in preventing the onset of such eyesight problems. Regular check ups with the ophthalmologist will additionally ensure that the symptoms are detected early so that the degradation of vision can be arrested and reversed as soon as possible. Other means of preventing these conditions are listed below:
- The use of sunglasses is great for protection of the eyes.
- Avoiding smoking and drinking will go a long way in keeping the eyesight at its natural best.
- The blood pressure and cholesterol levels must be maintained within limits to avoid their ill effects on vision.
- Green vegetables and fruits that are rich in antioxidants are traditionally proven means of acquiring and maintaining a good vision.
- Regular walks on wet grass in the mornings are a good practice to upkeep the eyesight.
The eyesight problems are rapidly becoming a menace for many people due to the high stress levels that are being encountered in the modern hectic lifestyles. Towards this end people will have to understand the causes and remedial measures of eyesight problems along with adoption of preventive measures into their lifestyles to be able to see better and clearer for a longer time in their lives.